This classic Monty Python sketch, “Bookshop,” contains a memorable use of the word expurgate, which means “to censor, to remove morally offensive passages.”

The funny part — if you haven’t heard or seen the sketch before — is that the customer in the bookshop wants an expurgated version of a book that no one would normally find the need to censor: Olsen’s Standard Book of British Birds. (He dislikes a particular bird — they have “long, nasty beaks”).

There are a few other GRE words relating to censoring or shortening:

Redact – Revise or edit; draw up or frame. This word is sometimes used euphemistically to refer to censorship, as in the title of the 2007 film Redacted.

Abridge – “To shorten by omissions while retaining the basic contents,” as is frequently done when adapting a book to audiobook format.

Truncate – “to shorten by cutting off a part; cut short”

And, of course, don’t get censor mixed up with censure, which means to disapprove, especially formally.

The new James Cameron 3-D action thriller Sanctum is about a cave diving team that becomes trapped in an underwater labyrinth.

“Soon, they are confronted with the unavoidable question: Can they survive, or will they be trapped forever?”

A sanctum is a sacred place or a place free from intrusion. For instance, your bedroom might be a sanctum where you can lock the door and study for the GRE for hours without interruption! (Or maybe you’re not so lucky…).

So, the use of sanctum is a bit unusual (perhaps ironic) for a place where our heroes are trapped and risk a watery death.

Sanctum contains the root “sanct-“, which means “holy” and also appears in sanctuary, sanctify, sacrosanct, and sanctimonious.

Flotsam and JetsamFlotsam and Jetsam are evil moray eels in Disney’s The Little Mermaid.

The words flotsam and jetsam, appropriately enough, are words related to trash found in the water.

While the two words usually occur as an expression — “flotsam and jetsam,” always in that order — they do have distinct meanings:

Flotsam is “the part of the wreckage of a ship and its cargo found floating on the water.”

Jetsam is “goods cast overboard deliberately, as to lighten a vessel or improve its stability in an emergency, which sink where jettisoned or are washed ashore.”

As an expression, “flotsam and jetsam” often means any big mess of trash, or even of people. The earthquake that destroyed much of the city also caused the prison’s north wall to crumble, allowing the flotsam and jetsam of society to pour out into the chaos.

A third word, lagan, refers to “anything sunk in the sea, but attached to a buoy or the like so that it may be recovered.”

From Wikipedia, on The Little Mermaid:

Flotsam and Jetsam are the first to notice Ariel’s infatuation with the world above. Upon witnessing the mermaid fall in love with a human, Prince Eric, Ursula sends Flotsam and Jetsam to propose a deal to Ariel. In making sure that Ursula wins the deal, Flotsam and Jetsam sabotage what would have been a successful kiss between Ariel and Eric. In the climax, Flotsam and Jetsam attempt to drown Eric by dragging him underwater.

Trashy!

Manhattan GRE’s blog is written by one of our real-live GRE instructors. She teaches in New York. To learn about Manhattan GRE’s classes, go here. To suggest a word or topic for the blog, email jen@manhattanprep.com/gre.

Harry-Potter-and-the-Deathly-Hallows-Movie-PosterWhat on earth are hallows, anyway?

You may have heard the word hallow as a verb — if you’re Catholic, “Our Father who art in heaven, hallowed be thy name….” Universities are sometimes referred to as “these hallowed halls.” Another name for Halloween is “Hallow’s Eve.”

As a verb, hallow means “to make holy; to honor as holy.”

As a noun, hallow or hallows means “a holy person or saint; the relics or remains of a saint, or the shrines in which they are kept.”

Select your own answer to this GRE Antonyms question before clicking “more”:

HALLOW:
A. disinter
B. apotheosize
C. deconsecrate
D. depredate
E. osculate

Continue Reading…

The Dilemma movie posterA dilemma is, properly speaking, a choice between two (equally bad) options — hence the prefix “di,” meaning two (“bi” is Latin and “di” is Greek, but both mean “two,” as in dichotomy or bifurcate).

If you have a choice among three bad options, you have a trilemma (really!)

I gathered from the IMDB page for The Dilemma that the film is about a man who has to decide whether to reveal to his friend the details of the friend’s wife’s affair (that is, her clandestine trysts) — so that really does sound like a dilemma.

If what you have on your hands is more of just a big problematic mess, one of these words would probably be more appropriate:

Quandary: a state of perplexity or uncertainty

Quagmire: an area of miry or boggy ground whose surface yields underfoot (like quicksand); a situation from which extrication is very difficult

Debacle: a sudden downfall, a complete collapse or failure

A quandary could be serious, but could also be pretty mild. Two boys asked me to the prom at the same time — I’m in such a quandary!

The Vietnam War was famously referred to as a quagmire.

In fact, Vietnam could be said to have been a quagmire that turned into a debacle. That is, a quagmire is a quicksand-like problem that it is very hard to get out of — but there’s still a chance! A debacle is a disastrous failure. You could say something like “I’m in a quandary about what would be our best chance of extricating ourselves from this quagmire before it becomes a debacle.”

Happy New Year!

Jen Dziura —  December 31, 2010 — Leave a comment

fireworks

Felicitations!

May this day herald the advent of an auspicious new year!

Top Words of 2010

Jen Dziura —  December 29, 2010 — 7 Comments

Most lists of the “top words of 2010″ are all about sexting, jeggings, vuvuzela, and bromances. But a few GRE-worthy words have made headlines this past year:

obama

Shellacking – An utter defeat or sound thrashing. President Obama used this word to refer to Republicans’ victories in the midterm election. “Shellac” or “shellack” is also a somewhat obsolete form of varnish; the way in which a word for varnish came to be a verb meaning “to beat” is somewhat arcane, as explained in this BBC article.

sarah palin

“Refudiate” – Coined by Sarah Palin in 2010, “refudiate” is NOT A WORD. However, this solecism (or, to be kind, neologism) seems to be a fusion of refute and repudiate, both important GRE words. What’s the difference? To refute is to prove an argument or opinion to be false. To repudiate is to reject, cast off, or disown. You refute an argument; you repudiate your family, country, or religion. I could repudiate my belief that the Earth is round, but I don’t think it would be possible for me to refute it.

“Snowmageddon” and “Snowpocalypse” – These portmanteau words referring to record cold temperatures around the globe (as in, now) are playing off the words apocalypse and armageddon. Apocalypse is any universal or widespread disaster or destruction, or a prophesy of such a disaster. Armageddon is, if possible, even worse: the place where the final battle will be fought between the forces of good and evil, or a final and completely destructive battle. Many movies have a post-apocalyptic setting (recently: Blindness, The Book of Eli, I Am Legend), but a post-Armageddon setting would hardly be possible, as there would be no humans left to be characters in the movie.

A felicitious Snowmageddon and a happy new year!

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Scurvy is a disease caused by vitamin C deficiency. From Wikipedia:

Scurvy was at one time common among sailors, pirates and others aboard ships at sea longer than perishable fruits and vegetables could be stored (subsisting instead only on cured and salted meats and dried grains) and by soldiers similarly separated from these foods for extended periods. It was described by Hippocrates (c. 460 BC“c. 380 BC), and herbal cures for scurvy have been known in many native cultures since prehistory. Scurvy was one of the limiting factors of marine travel, often killing large numbers of the passengers and crew on long-distance voyages. This became a significant issue in Europe from the beginning of the modern era in the Age of Discovery in the 15th century, continuing to play a significant role through World War I in the 20th century.

It was a pretty big deal when it was finally discovered that citrus fruit cured scurvy.

More interestingly for the GRE, however, scurvy can also be an adjective meaning “despicable or mean.”

The scurvy bully not only stole his lunch money, but also reversed all the positive and negative signs on his math homework.

Quantum mechanics is a branch of physics (it does not involve manual labor — hence the joke), but quantum on its own means “a particular quantity or amount” or can be used as an adjective to mean “sudden and dramatic” (a quantum shift in thought).

The meaning in physics is related to the smallest indivisible part of something (radiant energy) and can be used this way colloquially as well:

If you want to share your Skittles, a quantum is quite small (one Skittle), but if you want to share your Reese’s cups, a quantum is quite large (one of only two cups in the pack).

The word quantum also notably appears in the title of the show Quantum Leap (in which Scott Bakula’s character time-travels someplace new in every episode) and in the James Bond movie Quantum of Solace (we’re not sure why it’s called that — probably just because “Q” words sound cool).

Hyperbole is obvious and intentional exaggeration. Haha, “best thing ever”!

Kinetic means pertaining to or caused by motion. Relatedly, “motion scientists” (and highly educated gym teachers) are called kinesiologists.

Binary means of or relating to the number two. Sometimes people say binary to refer to a system of “ones and zeros” in computer programming.

Mathematically, binary means “of or pertaining to a system of numerical notation to the base 2, in which each place of a number, expressed as 0 or 1, corresponds to a power of 2. The decimal number 58 appears as 111010 in binary notation.”

Colloquially, people use binary to refer to a system with only two options. Activists fighting for the rights of transgendered (or non-gender-conforming) people sometimes speak out against a “gender binary.” By this, they mean that it ought to be okay to exist at various places in the middle of a spectrum of male and female, or to exist entirely outside of that system of gender encoding.

These shirts and other risible sartorial items are available here.