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Anirudh
 
 

Ozone reaches high concentrations twelve miles

by Anirudh Mon Jun 23, 2008 11:02 am

Ozone reaches high concentrations twelve miles above Earth, where it has long appeared that it was immune from human influence; we have now realized, though, that emissions of industrial chlorofluorocarbons deplete the ozone layer.

A) has long appeared that it was immune from

B) has long appeared to have been immune from

C) has long appeared as being immune to

D) had long appeared immune to

E) had long appeared that it was immune to

I could figure out that "immune to" is better than "immune from". C lost out because of "being". But I could not choose between D and E.
Could you please explain.

Thanks
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by StaceyKoprince Wed Jul 09, 2008 7:11 pm

Tough call! Grammatically, there's nothing (much) wrong with E. The general preference when you're saying something "appeared" in some way is to just say it - don't need all those extra words. She had long appeared happy when visiting home for the holidays, but this year she was just plain grumpy. :)

Sort of a cross between idiomatic usage (appeared X) and concision (just say it without all the extra words!). So D is right.

[editor: the repetition of "it" in choice (e) is also highly undesirable. technically, this is not 100% wrong; the first "it" is of a special kind that doesn't require an antecedent. however, that construction is usually used only when there is NOT another "it" in the sentence to muddle things up. --ron]
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Re: Ozone reaches high concentrations twelve miles

by cesar.rodriguez.blanco Thu Aug 20, 2009 4:48 pm

Is there any difference between immune from and immune to?
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Re: Ozone reaches high concentrations twelve miles

by RonPurewal Thu Aug 27, 2009 5:42 am

cesar.rodriguez.blanco wrote:Is there any difference between immune from and immune to?

the former is unidiomatic (wrong).
the latter is idiomatic (correct).
that's the difference.

remember, idioms don't follow rules; you just have to memorize them, one at a time, if you don't know them.
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Re: Ozone reaches high concentrations twelve miles

by fly2ajit Thu Aug 27, 2009 4:01 pm

http://www.grammarphobia.com/blog/2008/ ... ponse.html

might help to understand about the idiom..
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Re: Ozone reaches high concentrations twelve miles

by cesar.rodriguez.blanco Sat Aug 29, 2009 10:26 am

Thanks
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Re: Ozone reaches high concentrations twelve miles

by RonPurewal Sun Sep 20, 2009 3:12 am

cesar.rodriguez.blanco wrote:Thanks

you got it
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Re: Ozone reaches high concentrations twelve miles

by mithra Sun Jan 03, 2010 2:53 pm

I still don't get the usuage of "HAD" over "HAS", since it says "we have now realized" - That is present, so why can't we say "has appeared" (which means continue till present and now we realized it wasn't the case), whereas "had" would mean it appeared in PAST's PAST....I always get confused in this usage...help?
Thanks.
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Re: Ozone reaches high concentrations twelve miles

by RonPurewal Sat Jan 16, 2010 8:02 pm

mithra wrote:I still don't get the usuage of "HAD" over "HAS", since it says "we have now realized" - That is present, so why can't we say "has appeared" (which means continue till present and now we realized it wasn't the case), whereas "had" would mean it appeared in PAST's PAST....I always get confused in this usage...help?
Thanks.


yeah, i can see how this is tough.

when you say "we have realized", though, this actually means that the realization took place in the PAST. (probably the recent past, but in the past nonetheless.)

here's the fuller deal with the present perfect ("has/have VERBed"):
if you use the present perfect with a POINT EVENT - i.e., an event that OCCURS AT A SINGLE INSTANCE IN TIME (realized, graduated, paid, given birth, scored, etc.) - then the event must have taken place IN THE PAST.
normally this is the quite recent past, but that's not always the case.
think about these:
my brother has obtained three business degrees.
the team has scored 32 points in this quarter.
Russia and the U.S. have sent expeditions to the moon.

these are all point events, and they are all PAST events.
the second is obviously in the very recent past, but the third is an event that happened over forty years ago (but to which we can still refer in the present perfect if it's relevant to the current topic of discussion). the first could be anywhere from a few minutes ago to 60-70 years ago, depending on my brother's age.

notice that, since these are "point" events, it's actually IMPOSSIBLE to refer to them in the present - unless you're narrating them, in the style of a sports announcer ("Demps scores a touchdown!")
so if you see them in the present perfect, they've already happened.

--

verb tenses are easily the toughest aspect of learning any language. hang in there.
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Re: Ozone reaches high concentrations twelve miles

by zarak_khan Sat May 01, 2010 7:24 pm

Hi Ron,

Ozone "reaches" high concentrations twelve miles above Earth, where it has long appeared that it was immune from human influence; we have now realized, though, that emissions of industrial chlorofluorocarbons deplete the ozone layer.
A) has long appeared that it was immune from
B) has long appeared to have been immune from
C) has long appeared as being immune to
D) had long appeared immune to
E) had long appeared that it was immune to

The question stem has two parts and two tenses: one that is underlined and the other that is in italics. Would this not make C correct? Or does the "though" in the second part of the sentence make all the difference? Although I did not like C because of the "as being", I still went with this choice.
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Re: Ozone reaches high concentrations twelve miles

by RonPurewal Wed May 05, 2010 8:31 am

zarak_khan wrote:Hi Ron,

Ozone "reaches" high concentrations twelve miles above Earth, where it has long appeared that it was immune from human influence; we have now realized, though, that emissions of industrial chlorofluorocarbons deplete the ozone layer.
A) has long appeared that it was immune from
B) has long appeared to have been immune from
C) has long appeared as being immune to
D) had long appeared immune to
E) had long appeared that it was immune to

The question stem has two parts and two tenses: one that is underlined and the other that is in italics. Would this not make C correct? Or does the "though" in the second part of the sentence make all the difference? Although I did not like C because of the "as being", I still went with this choice.


"as being" isn't idiomatic -- i think that's really the only thing that's wrong with it.
in general, you should be suspicious of the word "being" unless it's used in a passive-voice construction, in which it could quite reasonably be correct.
i've never seen the word "being" in a correct construction that was not in the passive voice, although i cannot guarantee you that this couldn't happen.

nothing in the second sentence is going to influence the first sentence, since the first sentence is perfectly capable of standing on its own.
note, though, that it doesn't make any sense to switch tenses within the construction "has long appeared ... immune", since there is no actual change in time frames in that statement. (by contrast, notice that it makes sense to change tenses between "reaches" and "has/had appeared", since the former describes the current state of affairs while the latter describes a belief that persisted until a certain discovery was made. also note that "had appeared" makes more sense than "has appeared", since the moment at which this statement ceased to be true is in the past, not the present.)

in order not to have such a tense switch, we need one of the following two constructions:
"had long appeared immune"
or
"had long appeared to be immune"

the former is what is actually there, but the latter would be just as good.
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Re: Ozone reaches high concentrations twelve miles

by sridharnie Fri Oct 15, 2010 1:29 pm

Ron,

Could you please explain how "had" is correct over "has"?

Suppose the answer options were the following:

D) had long appeared immune to
E) has long appeared immune to

How to decide which one is the correct usage?
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Re: Ozone reaches high concentrations twelve miles

by a.shoib Sat Oct 16, 2010 8:22 am

Hi Ron,

Ozone "reaches" high concentrations twelve miles above Earth, where it has long appeared that it was immune from human influence; we have now realized, though, that emissions of industrial chlorofluorocarbons deplete the ozone layer.
A) has long appeared that it was immune from
B) has long appeared to have been immune from
C) has long appeared as being immune to
D) had long appeared immune to
E) had long appeared that it was immune to

The question stem has two parts and two tenses: one that is underlined and the other that is in italics. Would this not make C correct? Or does the "though" in the second part of the sentence make all the difference? Although I did not like C because of the "as being", I still went with this choice.


Would like to ask at this point whether the option "b"
had it been
Has long appeared to have been immune "to" wud b correct
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Re: Ozone reaches high concentrations twelve miles

by RonPurewal Sat Oct 23, 2010 7:55 am

sridharnie wrote:Ron,

Could you please explain how "had" is correct over "has"?

Suppose the answer options were the following:

D) had long appeared immune to
E) has long appeared immune to

How to decide which one is the correct usage?


they wouldn't give you those answer choices; the difference is subtle (and debatable) enough that neither of them is distinctly wrong.
this is why they've included other errors in all the choices that contain "has" -- so there's no debate.

they don't do this very often, but they do sometimes -- they'll throw a difference in there that can't really be resolved, just to distract you away from the differences that can be resolved.
if have suggest the motive of the test writers, i'd say that they're trying to slant the test in favor of people who are willing to let go and move on when they see something they don't know how to resolve. (this is also a feature of the tight time pressure on the test -- it's meant to discriminate against people who deliberate for a long time before making decisions.)
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Re: Ozone reaches high concentrations twelve miles

by salman30 Sat Dec 04, 2010 9:41 am

RonPurewal wrote:
sridharnie wrote:Ron,

Could you please explain how "had" is correct over "has"?

Suppose the answer options were the following:

D) had long appeared immune to
E) has long appeared immune to

How to decide which one is the correct usage?


they wouldn't give you those answer choices; the difference is subtle (and debatable) enough that neither of them is distinctly wrong.
this is why they've included other errors in all the choices that contain "has" -- so there's no debate.

they don't do this very often, but they do sometimes -- they'll throw a difference in there that can't really be resolved, just to distract you away from the differences that can be resolved.
if have suggest the motive of the test writers, i'd say that they're trying to slant the test in favor of people who are willing to let go and move on when they see something they don't know how to resolve. (this is also a feature of the tight time pressure on the test -- it's meant to discriminate against people who deliberate for a long time before making decisions.)



Though one - However, thanks Ron.