Anonymous wrote:1) The comparison rule: The new image of Stone Age people as ______, rather than _______
Why are you not supposed to keep parallel structure here?
you ARE supposed to keep parallel structure. ironically, that parallel structure is another reason why (c) is worse than (d) or (e).
to wit, look at the blue parts below. note that "rather than" is a one-part signal - i.e., unlike two-part constructions such as "both ... and" and "not only ... but also", it lacks a left-hand part indicating the beginning of the first
parallel element. therefore, you can choose to start the first parallel element wherever you want
- meaning that you can choose to include or exclude "as" at your convenience:
(c)The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of large animals, rather than as mere meat scavengers, has...
this parallelism is acceptable
, but there are two undesirable things:
* "hunters OF large animals" isn't truly parallel to "meat scavengers"
* "meat scavengers" is awkward / unclear (you probably won't know this unless you're a native speaker of english and/or a writer)
(d)(e)The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of large animals, rather than mere scavengers of meat, has...
this is better parallelism (notice that "as" is excluded from the first part this time).
* note the EXACT parallelism between "hunters OF large animals" and "scavengers OF meat".
2) The modifier rule:
Is the "....tools found in Germany, which includes..." wrong because it makes it is used as a relative pronoun?
this construction implies, unambiguously (and absurdly), that germany itself "includes" 3 wooden spears.
3 all the way!