Manhattan Prep GRE Blog

Idioms for Reading Comp: Entree

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Did you know that an entree (or entrée) isn’t just something you eat in a restaurant?

Entree (usually as entree into) can also mean “admittance, permission to enter.” Most people in the U.S. think of an entree as the main dish of a meal, but it originally was an appetizer -“ a dish that leads into the main course (the word is related to enter). A person who wants to rise in society might seek an entree into a certain social group.

You can also say seek entree “ sometimes in that expression, the word an is sometimes omitted.

For disadvantaged young people, good public schools can provide an entree into the middle class.

I have sought entree to the upper echelons of power for some time, but no one wants to play golf with me.

Easily Confused Words: Prodigy and Prodigal (Hint: “Prodigal” is BAD)

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prodigy ≠ prodigal

A prodigy is an extraordinarily talented person, especially a child genius. For instance, Doogie Howser, of the TV show, “Doogie Howser, M.D.”

Prodigal is an adjective meaning “wastefully or recklessly extravagant,” or a noun meaning “a wasteful person.” This is Rembrandt’s painting “Return of the Prodigal Son,” based on a story from the Bible.

The guy on his knees is the prodigal one, but in the painting, he’s not being prodigal — he’s repenting for being prodigal.

The pith of the story is this: A man has two sons. Younger son: “Hey Dad, I know you’re not dead yet, but can I have my inheritance now anyway?” The munificent father gives the son the money, and the son goes off and spends it on wine and women, that sort of thing (what a libertine!) Then, famine strikes! The son becomes desperately poor and has to herd pigs. When it gets really bad, he decides to go back home and beg for a job as his father’s servant. But before the son can even ask, the father is already kissing him and having the servants dress him in fine robes and “kill the fatted calf” for a celebration. The older, obedient, non-prodigal son gets kind of pissed — nobody’s throwing a party for him, so why are they throwing a party for his jerk brother? We’ll leave aside the religious lesson (hint: the Dad is like God!), but the prodigal part is the younger son wasting all his money.

In sum, prodigal and prodigy are not at all the same thing! If I hear one more person tell me that prodigal means “genius,” I will be filled with a prodigious indignation!

Oh, I almost forgot. Prodigious isn’t the same as prodigy or prodigal — it just means “large.”

AdVocab: Aerie by American Eagle

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When I wrote this post about the word aerie, little did I know that Aerie was a store you could find in the mall! (I found one on a trip to Boston).

An aerie, of course, is “the nest of a bird of prey, as an eagle or a hawk” — or, metaphorically speaking, “a house, fortress, or the like, located high on a hill or mountain.” Aerie can also be spelled aery, eyrie, or eyry.

So, the store American Eagle seems to have opened up a lingerie shop called Aerie. You know … eagle … aerie? Makes sense, right? As in, if an eagle wanted to get amorous, it might say, “Hey baby, come on up to my aerie.”

PopVocab: The Insipid, Inane, Vapid, Fatuous “Friday” by Rebecca Black

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This week’s meme has been a fatuous music video by previously unknown thirteen year old Rebecca Black. The video, “Friday,” has been called “the worst song ever written.” See for yourself!

Fatuous means “foolish or inane, especially in an unconscious, complacent manner; silly.”

Here is an excerpt from the lyrics:

7am, waking up in the morning
Gotta be fresh, gotta go downstairs
Gotta have my bowl, gotta have cereal

Wow, isn’t that inane? (Lacking sense, significance, or ideas?) I might also call it insipid (without distinctive, interesting, or stimulating qualities). Here’s more:

Kickin’ in the front seat
Sittin’ in the back seat
Gotta make my mind up
Which seat can I take?

A lot of the insipidity or fatuity of the song has to do with the fact that the lyrics are so very mundane (or pedestrian). You have to have cereal before you go to the bus stop? Really? Is picking a seat in the car totally blowing your mind?

This song is so very bad that some might call it a travesty of modern pop music. A travesty is “a literary or artistic composition so inferior in quality as to be merely a grotesque imitation of its model.”

Yesterday was Thursday
Today it is Friday
We we we so excited
We so excited
We gonna have a ball today
Tomorrow is Saturday
And Sunday comes afterwards

Really? She tells us the days of the week? In chronological order? (Well, better than alphabetical order, I guess).

Because the song is so hilariously bad, it is spawned a number of parodies, or satirical imitations. Here is one lampoon of Black’s song:

Just when you thought nothing could get more fatuous, inane, insipid or vapid than “Tomorrow is Saturday / And Sunday comes afterwards,” this parody manages to lampoon those very utilitarian lyrics with, “Friday happens on Friday.”

PopVocab: Charlie Sheen and Moral Turpitude

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PopEater recently ran this post about Charlie Sheen’s very public meltdown.

Notice the word turpitude. Turpitude means depravity, baseness of character, or corrupt or depraved acts. It is often used in the phrase moral turpitude, a legal term that describes depraved behavior.

Worried about her grandson’s turpitude “ as evinced by his constant detentions and a three-day stay in a juvenile jail “ Mrs. Worthington offered to pay for military school.

It’s hard to fathom the kind of turpitude required to make a movie that could get banned in modern-day Europe! When I read the screenplay, I nearly threw up.

Three related words are:

Base – morally low, mean, dishonorable; of little or no value; crude and unrefined; counterfeit

Debase – lower or reduce in quality or dignity

…and, of course, depraved, meaning morally bad, corrupt, or perverted.

Now, take a look at the use of turpitude in the Sheen article:

Do you spot the problem?

Turpitude is a bad thing. Sheen certainly wasn’t fired for a lack of it — he was fired for turpitude itself. Perhaps we could say he was fired for a surfeit of turpitude.

Anyone want to start a band called Surfeit of Turpitude?

Idioms for Reading Comp: Gloss Over, Paper Over, Whitewash

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glossGloss over, paper over, and whitewash are all expressions for covering up a problem, insult, etc. rather than addressing it or fixing it. Think of a dirty floor that you just put a pretty rug on top of instead of cleaning.

Because gloss is slippery (think of lip gloss), gloss over often has the sense of trying to smoothly and quickly move on to something else.

Whitewash, literally, is a substance used to whiten walls, wood, etc.

He made a snide remark about short people and then tried to gloss over it when he realized his 5’2 boss had overheard.

The journalist accused the government of trying to whitewash the scandal, implying that the officials covered up the incident out of concern for national security rather than to protect themselves.

Origin Stories: Toady

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“Origin story” is an expression for a superhero’s backstory — for instance, Superman was born on Krypton just before it was destroyed. Many words also have fascinating origin stories. While English comes largely from Latin (and from Greek, and from Latin through French and Spanish, with some Germanic roots and a bit of Sanskrit, etc.), you’ll find that word usage can change quite bit over a couple thousand years.

A toady is someone who flatters or acts in a servile manner for self-serving reasons.

Look at that toady, sucking up and offering to do the boss’s Christmas shopping for his kids. Gross.

Lackey, Sycophant, and Myrmidon are synonyms.

Fawn means to try to please in a submissive way.

Obsequious means servile, very compliant, fawning.

Truckle means to act subserviently.

Toady comes from toad-eater, after magicians’ assistants who would supposedly eat poisonous toads so the magician could show off his ability to magically expel the poison. Toadeat used to mean do any degrading thing for your boss, but today you can use toady as a verb (or toady up to someone) for this purpose.

toad

Visual Dictionary: Tokens and Tokenism

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A token can be a sign, symbol, mark, or badge; a souvenir or memento; a coin-like disk used as currency for subways, arcade games, etc.; or a person, thing, or idea taken to represent an entire group.

Token can also be an adjective meaning “of very little or merely symbolic value.”

That definition about “a person, thing, or idea taken to represent an entire group” has a little more to it, though. From Wikipedia’s page on tokenism:

Tokenism refers to a policy or practice of limited inclusion of members of a minority group, usually creating a false appearance of inclusive practices, intentional or not. Typical examples in real life and fiction include purposely including a member of a minority race (such as a black character in a mainly white cast, or a woman in a traditionally male universe) into a group. Classically, token characters have some reduced capacity compared to the other characters and may have bland or inoffensive personalities so as to not be accused of stereotyping negative traits. Alternatively, their differences may be overemphasized or made “exotic” and glamorous.

By the same token is an expression that means the speaker will then say something based on the same evidence he or she used for what was previously said.

I am starting to realize that this law firm hired me to be its token woman. There I am, smiling in all the ads “ but I never actually get to work on important cases.

I am giving you this Best Friends Forever necklace as a token of our friendship.

The charity did pay me a token amount to speak. I offered to speak for free, but the president gave me a check for a small amount as a measure of respect.

As a libertarian, he wants to abolish the IRS. By the same token, he wants drugs legalized.

Choosy Moms Choose Vocabulary: Deleterious

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I thought this was pretty excellent. Notice how my mom wasn’t sure about how to use the word, so she “looked up examples of this word’s use in a sentence”? What an excellent strategy!

mom-deleterious

PopVocab: Plaudits, Gilded, Sylph

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This recent article from the UK’s Daily Mail contained several GRE-appropriate vocabulary words.

Plaudits (always plural) means an enthusiastic expression of approval. The word shares a root with applaud, laud, and laudation, and is used similarly to the (also plural) kudos.

Gilded means “covered or highlighted with gold or something of a golden color,” or “having a pleasing or showy appearance that conceals something of little worth.”

You probably remember the “Gilded Age” from U.S. History, a time in which the upper class lived opulent lifestyles and gave lavishly to philanthropic causes, but also a time in which a class divide was growing and labor unrest was brewing. From Wikipedia:

The term “Gilded Age” was coined by Mark Twain and Charles Dudley Warner in their 1873 book, The Gilded Age: A Tale of Today. The name refers to the process of gilding an object with a superficial layer of gold and is meant to make fun of ostentatious display while playing on the term “golden age.”

A common expression is “to gild the lily”, which means “to add unnecessary ornamentation, a special feature, etc., in an attempt to improve something that is already complete, satisfactory, or ideal.” After all, if you’ve already got a beautiful flower, why would you try to gold-plate it?

Today I graduated with my masters and also got engaged! It’s the best day of my life! Baking me a celebratory cake would just be gilding the lily.

Don’t confuse gild with guild, a medieval trade organization or any organization of people with related interests, goals, etc.

A Sylph is a slender, graceful woman or girl. No surprise there, right? Oh, here’s definition #2: “(in folklore) one of a race of supernatural beings supposed to inhabit the air.”

They’re so thin they EAT AIR! Okay, not exactly. From Dictionary.com, credited to Random House:

Sylph, salamander, undine ( nymph ), gnome were imaginary beings inhabiting the four elements once believed to make up the physical world. All except the gnomes were female. Sylphs dwelt in the air and were light, dainty, and airy beings. Salamanders dwelt in fire: a salamander that lives in the midst of flames (Addison). Undines were water spirits: By marrying a man, an undine could acquire a mortal soul. (They were also called nymphs, though nymphs were ordinarily minor divinities of nature who dwelt in woods, hills, and meadows as well as in waters.) Gnomes were little old men or dwarfs, dwelling in the earth: ugly enough to be king of the gnomes.

That’s pretty incredible. I think I’ve seen a few gnome/sylph romances among the rich and famous.